Италия — м ясные деликатесы: Лардо (Тоскана), Мортаделла (Болонья), Салями S. Angelo (Сицилия), Прошутто (Парма) Франция — м ясные деликатесы: Байонская ветчи-на, колбаски Boudin blanc de Rethel


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 
Œ \f­\r­ \r\r\n\r\r \r
 \t\n\r\r, ­‚ \r‚\r (\r
\r) \r\n\r\r  \t\r\r­ (\f,
\r) \t, ­­­   , 
  .
 € ‚\r   ­ \t\r ,
 \r­ \f \t\r‚\r \r\r\r
 [›,œ,ž,¡,¢,£] \t\r \t \r­
\t\r\r \t \t \r\r \f­\r
  \r\r\n\r\r.
Œ\r \t\r €\r\r 
\t \t\r\r \t, \f \r \t\t
, ‚,   ­,   \r
\t \t\r-, \b 
\r\r \t\f \t\r\r­, \t\f, 
\b\r \t\r\n\r\t \t\r \r (fairtrade
products),  \t\f ‚\b\r\b\f ‚
\r \t\r\r­.
\r\f \r\r\n\r\f \t\f \t\r
\r­   \t‚\f \r\f \r\t‚­
\b\r \t \r \t\r [›].
ŽŽ…Žˆ ˆ–Ž\n˜Ž\b‹ ˆ\b\n˜‘‰
ŽŽ–Ž „\n‹ „Œƒ†\b— ŒŽ­\bƒŒˆ†ŽŽ
–­Žˆ‰Ž…„Œ‹ ‹ˆ\b •‹ˆ‘‰ –­Ž„”†Ž. ŽŽ­
 \r\f :
\b   \r …\b, \n , 
,   \b
\n\n\f\t \b
  …\b \n \b … …\b \b \r … 
\n  \b\r \b\r …   \b  \b , \r
  \r  . €\b  \b  \n  
\r …\b ,  \r  \b  \b  \n 
O,
C)  \b „. \t …  \r …
\b \n   , \b \n \b  
  \n \b … …\b \b     \r …\b
 , , \r \b…   ­ˆ ­- . ™
 \f \n  C, N S \b \r\n  \b   
\n \b \b \b…\b  …\b, … … \n \n \b \b
\r …\b \r\n … \n  , \b…  …  
  \n .
Review paper
POSSIBILITIES OF USING STABLE ISOTOPES
FOR IDENTIFICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN
OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS. A REVIEW
Key words:
identi‹cation of geographical origin,
stable isotope, fractionation of isotopes, meat and meat products
bstract
Identi‹cation of geographical origin of raw materials and animal-derived products to exclude a possibility of their falsi‹cation
is quite a complex task, which requires searching for reliable criteria of identi‹cation that account for an e‘ect of the geoclimatic
and anthropogenic factors. One of the methods for revealing falsi‹cation of geographical origin of food including meat products is
a method of analysis of stable isotopes (
O,
C) and several other elements. Œe review describes the main
theoretical provisions of stable isotope analysis and their fractionation, presents the results of the investigation of the isotopic com
position of meat raw materials and products of animal origin for veri‹cation of their geographical origin and feeding systems that
di‘er largely in the content of Cˆ and C plants in the animal diet. Analysis of the C, N and S stable isotope ratio has a signi‹cant
potential for authentication of meat raw materials and veri‹cation of the origin. In addition, it can be used to detect di‘erences
between very similar agricultural production systems, even if the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.
”„†/UDC œžŸ.¡.¥œ:¡£.¥¢Ÿ:¡¦¤.©
DOI ¤¥.¢¤ž¢ž/¢£¤£§£ž¦X
¢¥¤¦§ž§¤§£œ§¡¦
Для цитирования:
Горбунова
озможности использования стабильных изотопов для идентиГикации геограГического происхождения мяса
мясных продуктов.
бзор.
теория и
практика переработки мяса.
2018;3(1):46–58. DOI:10.21323/2414–438X‑2018–3–1–46–58
tat
Gorbunova
. Possibilities of using stable isotopes for identi�cation of geographical origin of meat and meat products.
review.
theory and practice of meat processing.
2018;3(1):46–58. (In
uss.) DOI:10.21323/2414–438X‑2018–3–1–46–58
 .\b.
\f \f \n \t\r\b\f \r \r. ..  , , \r­
Nataliya A. Gorbunova
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
 \r \r \t\r\r­ \f­ \r
 \t\r\r­ ‚  ­
\r \t\r \f \r\r \r\r\r
\n\r\r, \r\f\b\r \r­\r \r\r\r \r
\t\f . ƒ\r\r \r ­­­
\r\r\r ‹\f \r\r \r‚\t\f, \r\r \f
  \r \r\r \t \r
\t\r\r­ [¤]:
\t­­ \r\r\r  \f, \f
\r\f ¥;
‚\r\r  \r‚\r\r\r \r \r\t\t
\r­ ‹  \r \r\r
\t­\r  \b;
‚\r\r  \r\r\r \r 
 \r.
Ž Š \f
‘ \r \t\r\r­ \t
 \t\r\r­ (\r\r  \t\r\r­
) \f‚ \r \t\t­
 ‚ \r\r\n\r\r \t, \f­
\b­ \f\r  \r \r‚ ­ \r\f.
Œ ®\t  ˆ‚, ‚\b\r\b
\b \r \t\f \t\r \t ‚
‚\r­ ‚­  \t\n\r\r, ‹
\r \r\r‚\n\r  \r­
\r\t\b\r   \r‚ \r  ,
\t\b \t\r‚\r­ \t\r\r  
\t\f ‚ \t\r\f \t\f, \r 
 \n\r\r \r\r\r 
\t\r \tŸ \t\r \t \r\r \r‚
 \t\n\r\r [›,§].
 ­\b ­ ‚\b\r \r\r 
‚\r \r\r\r \r\n\r\f  ®ˆ
\r­ …\r ‡
››¢›/œ¦›œ ®\t 
\t  œ› ­­ œ¦›œ . \r\r \t\f
€\r­ ‹  \r­ ‚ ‚
\b\r \f ‚, \r­  \r\r­
 \t\r\r­  \r  \n\r\r.
 ®ˆ ‚\r  \r ­\f \r
\r \t­\r .
\r ‚\r \t\r\r­ (Pro
tected designation of origin—
PDO) \t\r
 \r \n\t\f, \r\t‚\r
  \r \f­ \r\t\r‚
 \t \r\r ‚ 
\r,    \r‚\r \r\f 
\r\r\r \r­ \r­ , \r
\r\r \r \r(\r\r) \r 
\f, \t‚ ‚\r \r, \r\t‚
­ \r\r­ \t, \t\r‚\r 
‹ \r. \t\r, «Parma Ham» (…­
\r)—
­ PDO, \r 
\f \r­  \r\r \t\n \t
\r‚ \r\f  \b­­  
\t\r\r­—
.
…, †\r­.
‘­ \r ‚\r (Protected
geographical indication—
PGI)  ‚\r­
 \t\r‚ \t\n\r\r  \t, 
\t‚­, \f  \r \r‚ \t\n \t\r­,
\r \r\r \t\r\r­ \t \b­
­ ‚ \r. \t\r,  ­ \r,
\r\r  ó\r —
\f­\f \r ,
\t\r‚\r\f ­  \f  -‚\t
\n\r\r. … \t\r  PGI ›ªª§ .
ˆ\r ­\f \t ‚\r\r\f\r
PDO, PGI,  \r \r\n\r\r (TSG)
(traditional specialities guaranteed) ®ˆ,  \t\r
  \t\r\r \b\r:
†\r­—
­\f \r\f: Š (ƒ),
 (­), ˆ­\r S. Angelo (ˆ\r\n\r\r­),
…€ (…);
\n\r­—
­\f \r\f:  ­ \r
\f \f \r €\r­  \t
 \r‚\t \r \t
O,
C \r..
\t\r \r\f \r‚\t \r ‹
 ‚\r\f \r\r\r \r\r\r\r
\r \b ‚\r­. ‘\r
\t\r­ ­‚\f \t\n\r \n\r\r
\r­,   \r‚\r €\r­ \r‚\t
 \r \r\r\r \r\r\r\r \t
\n [›¡,›¢]. ˆ\t \r\r\r \t
­ \t\r \r‚\t \f 
\r\r \r\r­—
\t\n\r\r  
\r\f \r, \t‹ \r‚\t €\r—

 \f \r\r ­ \t‚\r­
\r\f \r\r\f \r\r .
ˆ\f \r\r­ ‚\f,  \r‚
\t\f—
\r\r \t­\r \r\r \r\t‚
\r\r , \n\r\r\r \r‚\t—
‹ \r
\r­ \r\r­ \b [›£]. ˆ\r\f \r‚\t\f
 \f \r\t‚\f  \r‚\t\f \r\r\f
 ­:
\r\t‚\r \r  «€ \r» \t\r
\t\t\r\r \r -\r‚ \r\r
 \t\r\b ,  , ‚ \r\r \f\r
\t\t\r;
\t\r \t\r\r €\r \f \r‚
\t \r‚, ­­\b\r­ \r­\f
­\r ( ‚\f­ «­­ »).
\n\r\r\r \r‚\t—
\r \r \r
‚\r-\r\r \n\r, ­ 
‚\f­ \r  ­ \t\n, \r 
‹\r ­\r\r \r\f \b [›£].
•­ \r\r \t\r\b\f \t \r
 \n\r\r\r \r‚\t  \t\r
\r‚,  \n\r\r\r \r‚\t
 \r‚ \t\r \r\r\r (\r )
\n\r\r \r \b. \t\r,
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N \r\r \n\t­, \t
\r \r
‘ \r\f \r \r
\r\r \t­ \f
œ].•­ ‚\r­ \r‚\t  \t\r­ \r
\t‚ \r\r ¸, \t­\b  
\r (\f \f­\f ­ —à (\t\r)
   [œ,ž,›¤]:
›¦¦¦,Ã,

\r\r\r ‹;
—
­ €\r ­\f \r‚\t \r
\r ¥;
—
­ €\r ­\f \r‚\t \r
;
\t\r.
†‚ \f \r, \r ‚\n €\r \r‚
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) €,   ( ‚\n
\r € ­\f \r‚\t),  \r\n\r­
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€,  —
\t
\r.
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\n\f \t\r \r‚\t \r‚ \t\r\f ƒ. ›.
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œ Ÿœ ¦Ÿ [‘°]
‹Ÿœ
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Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW)
œœ› 
Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB)
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Atmospheric air (AIR)
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Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW)
œœ› 
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…  \r Ÿ
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\n\r\r\r \r\f \r‚\t \r
 \r \t\r\r \t\r  \f
\t\r. ‘\r­  \r  
\r ‚\r ­\f \r‚\t
O. 
­ \r\t\r­, ‚  € \t\r\r 
\r \r‚\t,  \f\b­ \r\r, \t\r \r
\n\r\r ­ \t\r\t\f \t\n
\b\r­ \f ­\f\r \r‚\t\r [›ª].
\n\r\r\r \r\f \r‚\t 
 ­‚ \t\r\b \r\t \r‚
\r , ‚\r\b­ \t  \n\r\r
\r­ \r‚\t
C (\f­ ˆ
, \rˆ-
\r\t\f \r‚), \t\r ‹  \r\r
\r ¥ \b­ \r \r‚\t
ˆ \t
\r \r\r\r\r [œ,œ¦],  \t‚­
\t\r   \t, ­ \r  
\n\r  \r\r \r \t\r\b \r‚
-\r (, , \r, \t€\r\n, \f \f,
) \r\r ˆ
-\r (‚,  \r\r 
­\r, \t­ ‚  \t
  ‚ ).
\n\r\r\r \r‚\t ‚ 
\r‚­ \f \r\r\r\n\r\b\r
\r\r‚, \t\n\r \r\r\r\n\r\r \r
\r\r\n\r\r \t. • \r\r \r
\r ‚ \r\r \n\t­ \r \t\r\r
‚\r\f, ­\r \t\r, ‚\r\r ¸
\r\f \r‚ [œ].
ˆ€\r­ \r\f \r‚\t ‹,
\f ­  \r\r\r \r, \r
 \f€­ \r\r­, ‚\r\r  \r 
,  \f \r‚ \r  ­‚\f \r 
\r\r \t\r\r [ž]. ƒ, €\r
H  ‚\r\r  \f\f  
­, ­\r­   \r\r 
 \r. †‚\t\f 
‚\r\r   \r\r \b \t\f
\r\r .
‘\r \r‚  \r‚\r­ \r‚\t  \t
 \t\r\r­—
-\t\r\r . ‘ 
‚  \r\n\r \f ‚\r
\f \r‚\t \r\r\r ‹ \r\r €
\r \r, ‚, \t­ \t \r, \r,
\r \t\r\r \t.
  ‚  
\r •  € € 
\r‚  \t\r\f \r\f \r‚\t
, ‚ \r\f ­­­ \r \r‚ \t\n\r
\f \r ­ \r\r\n\r\r \r
\t\r\r­ \r\r\r\r  \t 
,  ­‚ ,  \r­ \r \r\r
\b\r \r\f, \f \r \t  
, \t\n\r \r \t\n\r\r\f ­ \r
\r‚\t\f \f, \t­\f \r\r\r\r
\r­\r \r\r­\r \b \f. ‘
 \r‚\t­ \r\r\n\r­ \t \r
\t\r\r­ \t  ­,  
‚­ \f \r\f  \t­
 ‚\r \t\r\r­,  \r
\r \r‚\r \r  \f\b\r­  ‚\f .
’ , €\r\f \r\r­ ­ \r\f
\r\r \r ­ ,  €\r \r
\r\r \r\r‚\r\r\r , ‚\f\b\r
\r­\r  \r‚\t\f   \r\f, \b
  \r\t\r­ [¡].
ˆ\f \r\r­ \t \r\r\n\r\r
­ \f­ \r\t‚\r \r‚\t \r \r
\r\r ‹ \n \r\t‚  
\f \t:
\r‚ €\r­ \r‚\t
‘ \r
H \t\r
­­ ­ \t\r­ \r \t\r
\r­, ­‚ \r\f\r \r\r
\r\r \r­\r [›¦];
\r‚ €\r­ \r‚\t
C \t\r
­­  ­ \t\r­ \t
\n\r, \r  ‚ \r\r \n\f [¡].
\f \r \r ‚\r­ \r\r 
\f\t. ƒ \n\r­ \r‚\t\f  \r
 \f\t, \f  \t\r‚\r \r \r­\r
 \r \r\f \t\r \n\r\r\r\r \r‚\t
  \b, \t\r­\b \r\r
‚\r\f €\r \r‚\t ‚\r\f 
­ \r.
…\r­­ \r\r\r\f \r‚ \r
\r \r \t\r \r\r\n\r \t ¸
Cª¤,£œ
\r\t ¸
N—
ª£,¡ž
% ‚\n ­ 
‚\r\r\r  \r\t \r , \r\t‚\f \t\r
\r\r. †\r­ ‚\r,  \r‚ 
€\r­ \r\f \r‚\t ­—
\t\t\r
\f \r\r\r \r ­ \t\r \t
\r\r \r\f \r\n\r ­ \t \r\t \t\r\r­.
Ž‚ \r‚\r­ \r‚\t 
\r‚ ­ \r\n\r\n\r\r ­\r\f \r‚ –\t\r\r,
\r\r \rˆ\r\f ”,  ­\r\f,
\t\r­\b \r‚ ®\t\f \t \n\f ­
\r [œ¡].
Ž \f \r\r \f †
\r\r \r\r\r\r\r \f \r‚\r \r\f
\r‚\t C, N \rS  \t\n\r\f  
\r \t\r\r­ \r\t  (
\r\n\r \r\r \r) ­ ­ \t
  [›¦].
•­ \r\r\r\n\r\r \r \t\r\r­ \r
\r ‚\n\f \r  (n
œ), \r
 (n
ž), \n‚ (n
œ), \n (n
¢), \r
­ (n
›), \r\t (n
¢), ‚\r (n
›¦)
­\r\f,  ‚\n\f \r‚ ˆ” ( \t\r\r, n = ››
\r›œ),   \r‚\r ‚\n\f   \r‚ \r
 ­ \r\r ­   \r ­\r
\f \r\n\r (n
›¤) \r\r (n
ݢ) 
.
 ,  \t ­ ­\r (­
\r\n\r \r) ‚\r \r 
\r ­\r\f  \r\r \r‚ 
\r‚\t C \rN.  € ‚\r\r ¸
 \t  \r\r ­\r 
\f ¥­  \t\r\t\f\r \t\t
\n\r­\r \r \r\t \r‚ C
\n\r
 \t  . ˆ\r \r ¸
\r\n\r\f \r\r \r œ¡,¢
à \r\r
\t \r \r œ›,£
à ‚\n ­\r\f
­ \t\r\r  \r\r \n\r ˆž
\r . \t\r\t ‹  \r\n
\f \r ¸
C ­ \r \r
›œ,ž
à \r‚\r \r ›¦,¦
à ­\r\f
  \t\r \r\r \r
\t‚\r C
, \r  ‚ \r\r ()
\t\r\r \t\r\b\f \f.
‰\r ‚\f \r\r\r\n\r ¸
C  \t
, \f \t‚­ \r\r \r
­\r  \t  . ‰, ­,  
 ­  ®\t\f, ­ †\r \r\r
\r,  \t \t\r\b\f \r\f \f
\b\r\r­ \r\r\t‚\r ˆ
‚­ 
\f—
‚\f  ­­­ \b\t\r­\f.
‘\t\r\f ‚\r\r\f \r‚\r­ ¸
\r­ \t \r ­ \t
  \t ‹ \t\t\r. ‘
  \r\r    , 
\n \r ®\t \b \r\f
\f\b\r\r­ ­ ’ˆ, \n\r \f \r
\t‚ ‚\r \r ‚\f. \t\r
, \r ¸
C \f€\n ’ˆ \f\r \r\t‚ 
\r œ¡
à  \r ›ž
à \t\r \r\r\r ­\r
\f, \t œž   \r\r,  
­  ­  \r\f \f
 \r \r ¸
C \r\r \r œ¤
† \r,  €\r ¸
C \r¸
­ ‚\n \r \r\n\r ­\r\f
\b \r  ‹\r \t‚ 
\t  ­\r\f,  \r , 
\r\r\n\r­ \t\r\r­ ­\r\f  
\r‚\t \r‚   € 
\r € [›¦].
  \r\r\r \r\r\f \r‚
\r‚\t  C, N \rS \t‚\r \r\n\r
 \r ­\r \r\n\r \r\r
 . ƒ, \r\n\r­ \r­ ­
\r \r  \r\n\f ‚\r­ \r‚\t
 \r, \r\f \r ¸
C \t 
\r \r ­\r \r œ¡,¢
\r\r œ£,¦
à , \t­,
 \r\n\r \r  \r\t‚ 
\n\r\f  \r\r  \r \r
\f \f\b\r\r­, ­ \r\r­  
­\f , \r\b\r  \r\n\f \r
C \t \r \n\r.
ƒ\r\n\r­ ­\r \r  \f\r 
N,  \r­, ­ \f ‚\r­ ‹
 \t‚­ \r\r ¤,§
à \r£,£
à 
. ‚\r\r­ \r‚\t  
\r \r\r\n\r ­\r , \r
\f ‚\r\r­\r \t\r\r \r 
 ( \r\r \n), \t­ ‚
\r \r\r \r\r [›¦,›œ]. \f \f\r
\r\t‚,  ‹ ‚  ­\r
\b\r
N \r \r-\t ‚  \r
\f \r , \r\f \t,  
\f\t\r \f\b\r\f \r\n\r \r
\r\f. ƒ ‚­ \r \r\f
¥­\r —
\t\r,  \f \r
\f  \r\r \r .
’ , \f  € \r\r
\r\r\f ¸
S ‚\n \r ¤,ª
à \t
\r \r\n\r ¤,œ
à \r 
­\r . …\r\r\f ‹ \r\r­  
­\f \r ­ ‚\r\f\r \r
\f\r \r‚\r­\r €\r­ ¸
S \r
 \t \t\r \r\r \r [œ¢]. ‚,
‹ ‚  \r\t‚\r \r 
 , \f \r  \f \r
\t \r ‚\f\r \r\r\r, \r\t‚
\f\r ­ \b\r­  \r\r  \r 
\r\r .
†‚\r \r­\r­ ‚\f \r‚\r  
\r \r\f \r‚\t C, N \rS \r
\r\r\n\r \r ­\r\f (›œ¤ \r
\r, ››¢ \r\n\r\f ‚\n) \t‚,  
\f ­\f €\r­ ¸
C ‚\n \f
­\r\f ­­\r   \f\r \r
\r \r\f ‚\f \t\r\f \r
€  œ
à \t\r ­ \t \r,  ­
 ‚\r ¸
C \r ­\r \f 
 \r‚\r\f \r‚\r  \r‚\r. 
\r\n\r ­\r ‚\r ¸
N \f ‚\f 
\r\r\f (­ \r‚\r ¤
Ã) \r
 ,  ­  \r­ ­\r \f
 \r‚\r ,  \r ‚\r
 \r‚\r \t‚ ¸
N. ˆ\r \r‚\t
\f (¸
S) \r  ‚ \r
\r \r \r ­\r\f [›œ].
ƒ\r ‚, \r‚\t  ­\r\f 
 \r  ‚\f ‚\r, \f,
­,  \r‚\r­  \r­
\r\f \r\t­­  \r­ \r
 . ˆ, ‚\f \r‚\r­ 
\r \r\f \t\r \t\r\r \t\r\r 
­\r\f \r\r \t \r \t\r
\r­ \r\t‚\r \r‚\t \r‚.
ˆ \n \r‚\r­  \r­ 
\r\f \r‚\t ­ Ä ’ \t
€ \r\r ¢ªª ‚\n \r\r\f ‚
\r \t\r\r­ \r‚ ›¡ : žž¢ ‚\n \r‚
Ä ’\r, œ£¡—
\r‚ Ä \rˆ \r
(’, ˆ”, \r\r, ¬\r\r), ª—
\r‚ \t \r
 (\r\r, \r\r, •\r\r, \n\r\r, 
\r\r, \r­\r\r, …€\r, \r\r, †\t\r\r). †
 €\r \r\f \r‚\t
N  ‚\r   \r
\r\f. \r‚ \t‚  ‚\r \t\r
\r\r ­  \r: Ä ’\r, \r\r
\r®\t\f. ƒ \r\r \f\r\r \r‚\r \t
‚\r ‚\f ¸
ˆ ­ ˆ” \r\r\r: \r
›¡,¤§ \r\r ›¡,§›
à , \r\r \r•
\r\r: \r œ¢,¢¤
à \r\r œ¢,œ¡
à ,
 ¥­­­, ­, \r \r \r‚
 [ϣ].
…\r \f \f \t \r‚\t 
 ‚\r\r  \r\f ¥ (\r \r
\r ­ €\r),   \r\r­ \r\r
\t\n ‚\r\f ­ \r\f  \t\r
\r \r\r \t‚ ‚\r\f
\t. ˆ\r ‚\n \r,   ›œ ­­
\r‚ €\r \t \r  \t \r‚\t 
ˆ\rN \t ‹ ‚\r. ƒ, €\r ¸
\r ­­ \r \t : \r\r\r­—
\r žœ,¢
Ã, †\t\r­—
\r œ£,ž
Ã, \n\r­—
\r œª,¡
Ã, \n\r­—
\r œ¡,§
Ã, †\r­—
\r ž›,¢
Ã, †\r­—
\r œ§,¢
ˆ  ­
­­: \r œ£,§
Ã, \r œœ,ž
Ã, \r œ¡,¦
 œ›,›
Ã, \r œ¢,§
Ã, \r œœ,¤
à 
, ¸
N  ­
­­: £,ž
Ã; £,£
Ã; ª,›
Ã; ¢,¤¢
à  [£].
 \f\r -ˆ\r\r\r \f
\r\r \r \r\t\r­ \r†\r 
\b \r‹\t\r \r\r\r ˆ\r\r 
\r­  \t \r‚ \r­ \r\f
\r‚\t  \r‚ ­\r, \r‚\r­ 
\r ‚\r­‚\r \t\f \r\r­ \r‚
\t   \r\r \r\t
\r   Œ ­. ˆ\r \r\f
\r‚\t  \r  \r œ¤,›£
 \r œ¤,§£
Ã,   \r\t‚ ­
\r\f ‚\f \r ˆ
-\r\t [œ¤].
…\f \f \t‚\r,  \r
\r\f \r‚\t  \f€ \r 
\t   ‚ œ¨ž  \r‚ \r
‚\f   Œ ­: ’\r , \r\r ,
•\r\r\r , Œ\r , ’\r\r\r\r , “\r
\r , Œ\r\r , \r\r ­  \r
œ¡,œ§
à  \r œ¢,§¡
Ã. ‰ \r ,
  ‚\n\f \f€ \r  \r
 \f,   ‚\r­ ¸
ˆ  \t\f
€  \r œ¡,¦
Ã. ˆ\r \r\f
\r‚\t ‚ \r\f ‚\n \b
 \r­ \r\r  ¢,§¢
à  ¤,§¡
Ã, 
\t ‚\r , \r\b\r \t\r
\b   \r\f. ‘\b\r
‚ \r\r \t‚\r \r, 
\r\f ‚\n\f ­, \t\f 
 \r \r,  \r  \t\r‚
 \r­­  \f [œ¤].
‚ \r\r\r\n\r­ \f \t\r
\r­ ­ \f­ \f \t. ƒ, \f
‚\r\r\r \rˆ” \r‚\r\r €\r­ \r\f
\r‚\t ¸
ˆ \r‚ ¸
N ­ ­\b
 \r,  \t «\r‚\n\r\r», \r‚ 
\n\r €\r  (\r, \r­, \r­,
‚\r\r­, ’, ’\r , †‚\r, \r­, ˆ”,
–\t\r­,  ‚\r­, ƒ\n\r­, ”\n\r­, Ä­ \r,
…\r­, \n\r­, \r\r\r­ \r.) [œ§].
†\r \r\f\r,  €\r 
\r\f \r‚\t ¸
ˆ  \r \r‚­­
\r\t‚  \r ››
à ( \r\r \r\r
 ‚ \r\r \t\r\r\r \r)  \r
 Ϣ
à ( \r\r \r­\r ˆ
-\r‚:
\t€\r\n, ­, \f  \t­). Š\f \t
\f ‚\r­  ‹\r\r  \r\r ‚
\r­\r ‚\r,   \r\r \r­\r \r
\t\t.
 ,  ‚\r­ ¸
ˆ \r\r
 \r œ¢,¡
à  \r ››,›
à ­ \r\f
‚\n ­ \r  ,  ‚
\r ¸
ˆ ­   \r ›£,œ
Ã. \r
 \r‚\r ‚\r­ ¸
ˆ \f ‚\n
\r‚ \r\r\r\r (\r­ \r”\r­), \f
\f\r—
\r‚ ‚\r\r\r. • \f\r ‚\r
\r­ ‚\r ¸
ˆ \r \f \f 
\r\r,  \r ‚\r­ ¸
ˆ ­ 
\r \r‚  … \rˆ\r \r\r \r
›¡,¦
à (n
¡) \r\r ›ª,£
à (n
¡) .
ˆ\r \r \r‚\t   
\t\r\r ‚\n  \r \r‚ ‚\f McDonald¼s
ˆ\r­  \r \r œœ,¤
’\f \r \r‚ –\t\r\r \r\r  \f\r
‚\r­ ¸
ˆ,  \r   \r‚ 
 ‚­  ‹ \f \r­\r ˆ
-\r\t,
 –\t\r­ \r\t\r ­\r \r‚ \r\r,
 \t\f \r­ ˆ
-\r‚. ˆ
\f \r‚\r\r €\r\r,  \t\r, \r\r 
\f\r ‚\r­ ¸
ˆ,  \f  \f\r €\r
,   € \t\r \r
\t\f \r.
Œ\r­ ¸
N \r\f ‚\n  \r
 \r‚­  ¡,œ  ª,œ
Ã, \t\r  \r\r
Ã. ‘‚\n\f  \r‚ –\t\r\r \r\r \r€
\r \r‚\t
N, ‚\n\f \r‚ ’\r­—
. ’  \t\r­ ¸
ˆ ‚\n\f \r‚ 
\r\r \t‚\r ‚\r \r ‚
\r ¸
N, \r‚­€­ \r\t‚  ¡,œ
à  §,¢
Ã.
ˆ\r\r\r ‚\r\f ‚\r\r \r\r ¸
N 
 \r, \t\f ‚\r\f  \r\t
\t\r\f \t \r €\r  .
†\r,  \r‚ \f ƒ‘ \t
\r\t ­\r\f, \r\r,  €\r
, ­\b\r  \r\r \t\r \t\r‚
  ­  \r \r\t‚ ­
\r  \f\b\r\r­, ‚ \r\r €\r
, \t\f \t­ ‚\r­ \r\t
 ­\r\f: ”\n\r­, †‚\r, …\r­, –\t\r­,
 ‚\r­ \r\r\f.

 ­\b ­ \n ­  \r \t
­­ €\r€\f \r\r­ \t \r\t
‚\r  \r‚ \r\f \r‚\t ­
\t\r­ \r \t\r\r­ ­
\r­\f \t. \r‚ \t\f \r
\r \r,  \r‚\t\f  \t
 \r \t\r\r­ \t­­ \r
\r\r\r \r\r\r\r \r­\r (€\r
\r­ \r,   ­), 
‚ ,  ‚\f\r \r‚\r­\r \r
. \r‚ €\r­ \r\f \r‚\t
C, N \rS  \t\n\r  \r \r‚ \r
 \r\r\n\r\r ­.
Introduction
™e task of revealing falsication of animal-derived
products linked with a change (distortion) of the informa
tion about product geographical origin (country, region) is
rather complicated but quite topical. ™e problem of a cer
tain product authentication or revelation of the fact of its
falsication has been acquiring an increasing importance
not only for consumers but also for responsible producers
and distributors [›,œ,ž,¡,¢,£].
An interest of consumers in a solution to the problem of
product authenticity regarding the foods they buy is espe
cially increased in case of products from the premium seg
ment, which includes organic foods, products correspond
ing to the principles of fair trade as well as products with
protected designation of origin (PDO).
Local and traditional products are perceived as
healthier and tastier, and nd a growing demand among
consumers [›].
Identication of the regional origin of animal raw ma
terials is quite a complicated task and requires a search
for reliable identication criteria with consideration for
the geoclimatic and anthropogenic factors. ™e markers
are chemical elements and their isotopes, which presence
in the animal body and animal products [¤]:
is conditioned by the chemical composition of water,
environment and feedstu³;
depends on the animal physiology and element redis
Two protected geographical terms are distinguished in
the EU.
Protected designation of origin (PDO) envisions an ab
solute adherence to a recipe, the use of the strictly specied
raw materials and product manufacture exclusively in the
designated place of the region, where its production and
qualitative characteristics are in²uenced by the geographic
environment, climatic peculiarities and (or) human fac
tors; it is intended to mean the name of a region used for
the name of a product produced only in this region. For
example, Prosciutto di Parma (Parma Ham) is PDO and
according to the established requirements the entire tech
nological process of ham production is to be carried out in
the place of its origin (Parma, Italy).
Protected geographical indication (PGI) is largely
based on the acknowledged reputation of this product and
at least one of the processes of production, processing or
preparation of a product is to be carried out in the speci
ed region. For example, Bayonne Ham or Jambon de Bay
onne is an air-dried pork ham, which is produced in the
area near Bayonne, France. ™e product was given the PGI
status in ›ªª§.
Among meat products with the registered PDO, PGI
and TSG (traditional speciality guaranteed) in the EU, the
following can be listed as examples:
Italy—
meat specialities: Lardo di Colonnata (Tus
cany), Mortadella (Bologna), Salame Sant Angelo (Sicily),
Prosciutto (Parma);
France—
meat specialities: Bayonne Ham, sausage
›¦¦¦,Ã,
Where,
E— is a chemical element;
— is the molar ratio of the heavy to light isotopes in the
studied object;
—
is the molar ratio of the heavy to light isotopes in the
standard;
permille.
It can be seen from the equation that if the ratio of iso
topes (R
) in a sample is lower than in the standard (that is
a sample contains less heavy isotopes) than the variation of
the isotopic composition ¸ has a negative value; and, on the
contrary, when R
is higher than in a standard, the varia
tion is positive.
™e generally accepted international standard samples
for isotopic analysis are given in Table ›.
Table ‘. International standards of the isotopic composition of
several chemical elements [‘°]
Chemical
element
Standard
of standard,²
Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW)
(Ocean Water)
Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB)
(Belemnite fossils)
Atmospheric air (AIR)
(Atmospheric air)
Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW)
(Ocean Water)
Canyon Diablo Troilite (CDT)
(Mineral troilite from meteorite)
Fractionation of stable isotopes
Fractionation of stable isotopes of oxygen and hy
drogen takes place upon water circulation in nature. ™e
ocean water has the maximum value of the heavy isotopes
 \r
O. During evaporation, it is saturated with the light
isotopes due to their higher mobility, while the opposite
process of water enrichment in the heavy isotopes is ob
served upon partial condensation [ݻ].
Fractionation of the carbon stable isotopes is mainly as
sociated with the type of plant photosynthesis that di³ers
in the level of fractionation of
C and
C isotopes (ˆ
and CAM photosynthesis types are distinguished). With
that, carbon of biological objects is enriched in the light
isotope,
ˆ, compared to abiotic ones [œ,œ¦], which allows
en subregions, which suggest the potential for using stable
isotope analysis of cattle tail hair samples in order to create
beef traceability database by regions [œ›].
™e e³ectiveness of ¸
C and ¸
N isotope analysis in
lipid and residual fractions of lamb protein was veried
[œœ]. ™e study was carried out on ›œ¦ samples of lamb
produced in di³erent regions of di³erent countries: the
United Kingdom, Spain, France, Greece, Island and Italy.
To evaluate the region of meat origin, canonical discrimi
nant analysis was used. ™e di³erentiation was carried out
by stable isotope ratios. Initially, ¤ª.œ
% of lamb samples
were classied correctly, while cross-validation of the dis
criminant model reduced the number of samples that were
correctly identied by geographical origin to £¤
™e South African researchers used the potential of
stable isotopes
C and
N as a marker for authen
tication of lamb from Karoo sheep raised in the Karoo re
gion of South Africa [œž]. Consumers highly value Karoo
lamb for its quality and unique organoleptic characteristics
(grassy aroma and taste), which are thought to be condi
tioned by the fact that sheep are raised in the free-range
systems and eat aromatic Karoo plants. Seven farms, which
es in the ¸
S ratio in English soils upon using fertilizers
[œ¢]. ™is result can possibly re²ect the use of seaweed with
higher
S content compared to terrestrial sources, which
are applied for feed enrichment or as fertilizer in the or
ganic farm systems.
™e study of the e³ect of seasonal changes on the com
position of stable isotopes C, N and S in organic and con
ventional Irish beef (›œ¤ organic and ››¢ conventional
samples) demonstrated that the time series of the ¸
C ratio
in the samples of conventional beef were signicantly non-
random and had a clear seasonal positive shiš of more than
à in the period from December to June, while the ¸
value in organic beef was less changeable and signicantly
lower. In conventional beef, the ¸
N was surprisingly invari
ant (remaining close to ¤
Ã) during the whole year; organic
beef was more variable and was distinguished by lower ¸
value. ™e sulfur isotope composition (¸
S) demonstrated
complex seasonal dynamics in both beef types [›œ].
™us, there can be seasonal patterns in the beef isotopic
composition, which, possibly, re²ect changes in the ways of
animal feeding and are conditioned by the rate of their tis
sue turnover. ™erefore, it is necessary to take into account
seasonal changes upon authentication of beef and other ani
mal-derived products with the use of isotopic analysis.
To study the peculiarities of stable isotope composition
in meat, a large-scale research was done in South Korea
with investigation of ¢ªª pork samples of di³erent origin
from ›¡ countries: žž¢ samples from South Korea, œ£¡ from
South and North America (Canada, USA, Mexico, Chile),
™e ¸
N values in the studied samples of Big Mac
pat
ties were in a range from ¡.œ
à to ª.œ
à (the median value
of £.£
Ã). ™e content of
N isotopes was the highest in
the Japanese patty samples and the lowest in the Chinese
samples. ™e samples from Australia showed a signicant
variability of the ¸
N values (ina range from ¡.œ
à to
Ã), which was similar to the results of ¸
ˆ measure
ment. No statistically signicant di³erences were found in
the ¸
N value in the Big Mac
patties bought in di³erent
countries and grouped by geographical latitude.
Taking into consideration the analysis of the FAO data
on beef import, the researchers established that locally pro
duced beef was used for production of Big Mac
patties in
most countries included in this study except six countries
presented in the order of an increase in beef import: Swe
\nŽ­\bƒŒˆ†’ ˆ–ˆŽ†
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inaldi, F.D., Om
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.E., Ehleringer, J.
. (2011). Worldwide sta
ble carbon and nitrogen isotopes of Big Mac® patties:
n example
of a truly «glocal» food.
Food chemistry,
127(4), 1712–1718.
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E-mail: [email protected]
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kandidat of technical sciences, Scienti…c

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