Италия — м ясные деликатесы: Лардо (Тоскана), Мортаделла (Болонья), Салями S. Angelo (Сицилия), Прошутто (Парма) Франция — м ясные деликатесы: Байонская ветчи-на, колбаски Boudin blanc de Rethel


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  Œ \f­\r­ \r\r\n\r\r \r  \t\n\r\r, ­‚ \r‚\r (\r \r) \r\n\r\r  \t\r\r­ (\f, \r) \t, ­­­   ,    .  € ‚\r   ­ \t\r ,  \r­ \f \t\r‚\r \r\r\r  [›,œ,ž,¡,¢,£] \t\r \t \r­ \t\r\r \t \t \r\r \f­\r   \r\r\n\r\r. Œ\r \t\r €\r\r  \t \t\r\r \t, \f \r \t\t , ‚,   ­,   \r \t \t\r-, \b  \r\r \t\f \t\r\r­, \t\f,  \b\r \t\r\n\r\t \t\r \r (fairtrade products),  \t\f ‚\b\r\b\f ‚ \r \t\r\r­. \r\f \r\r\n\r\f \t\f \t\r \r­   \t‚\f \r\f \r\t‚­ \b\r \t \r \t\r [›]. ŽŽ…Žˆ ˆ–Ž\n˜Ž\b‹ ˆ\b\n˜‘‰ ŽŽ–Ž „\n‹ „Œƒ†\b— ŒŽ­\bƒŒˆ†ŽŽ –­Žˆ‰Ž…„Œ‹ ‹ˆ\b •‹ˆ‘‰ –­Ž„”†Ž. ŽŽ­  \r\f : \b   \r …\b, \n ,  ,   \b \n\n\f\t \b   …\b \n \b … …\b \b \r …  \n  \b\r \b\r …   \b  \b , \r   \r  . €\b  \b  \n   \r …\b ,  \r  \b  \b  \n  O, C)  \b „. \t …  \r … \b \n   , \b \n \b     \n \b … …\b \b     \r …\b  , , \r \b…   ­ˆ ­- . ™  \f \n  C, N S \b \r\n  \b    \n \b \b \b…\b  …\b, … … \n \n \b \b \r …\b \r\n … \n  , \b…  …     \n . Review paper POSSIBILITIES OF USING STABLE ISOTOPES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS. A REVIEW Key words: identi‹cation of geographical origin, stable isotope, fractionation of isotopes, meat and meat products bstract Identi‹cation of geographical origin of raw materials and animal-derived products to exclude a possibility of their falsi‹cation is quite a complex task, which requires searching for reliable criteria of identi‹cation that account for an e‘ect of the geoclimatic and anthropogenic factors. One of the methods for revealing falsi‹cation of geographical origin of food including meat products is a method of analysis of stable isotopes ( O, C) and several other elements. Œe review describes the main theoretical provisions of stable isotope analysis and their fractionation, presents the results of the investigation of the isotopic com position of meat raw materials and products of animal origin for veri‹cation of their geographical origin and feeding systems that di‘er largely in the content of Cˆ and C plants in the animal diet. Analysis of the C, N and S stable isotope ratio has a signi‹cant potential for authentication of meat raw materials and veri‹cation of the origin. In addition, it can be used to detect di‘erences between very similar agricultural production systems, even if the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. ”„†/UDC œžŸ.¡.¥œ:¡£.¥¢Ÿ:¡¦¤.© DOI ¤¥.¢¤ž¢ž/¢£¤£§£ž¦X ¢¥¤¦§ž§¤§£œ§¡¦ Для цитирования: Горбунова озможности использования стабильных изотопов для идентиГикации геограГического происхождения мяса мясных продуктов. бзор. теория и практика переработки мяса. 2018;3(1):46–58. DOI:10.21323/2414–438X‑2018–3–1–46–58 tat Gorbunova . Possibilities of using stable isotopes for identi�cation of geographical origin of meat and meat products. review. theory and practice of meat processing. 2018;3(1):46–58. (In uss.) DOI:10.21323/2414–438X‑2018–3–1–46–58  .\b. \f \f \n \t\r\b\f \r \r. ..  , , \r­ Nataliya A. Gorbunova V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia  \r \r \t\r\r­ \f­ \r  \t\r\r­ ‚  ­ \r \t\r \f \r\r \r\r\r \n\r\r, \r\f\b\r \r­\r \r\r\r \r \t\f . ƒ\r\r \r ­­­ \r\r\r ‹\f \r\r \r‚\t\f, \r\r \f   \r \r\r \t \r \t\r\r­ [¤]: \t­­ \r\r\r  \f, \f \r\f ¥; ‚\r\r  \r‚\r\r\r \r \r\t\t \r­ ‹  \r \r\r \t­\r  \b; ‚\r\r  \r\r\r \r   \r. Ž Š \f ‘ \r \t\r\r­ \t  \t\r\r­ (\r\r  \t\r\r­ ) \f‚ \r \t\t­  ‚ \r\r\n\r\r \t, \f­ \b­ \f\r  \r \r‚ ­ \r\f. Œ ®\t  ˆ‚, ‚\b\r\b \b \r \t\f \t\r \t ‚ ‚\r­ ‚­  \t\n\r\r, ‹ \r \r\r‚\n\r  \r­ \r\t\b\r   \r‚ \r  , \t\b \t\r‚\r­ \t\r\r   \t\f ‚ \t\r\f \t\f, \r   \n\r\r \r\r\r  \t\r \tŸ \t\r \t \r\r \r‚  \t\n\r\r [›,§].  ­\b ­ ‚\b\r \r\r  ‚\r \r\r\r \r\n\r\f  ®ˆ \r­ …\r ‡ ››¢›/œ¦›œ ®\t  \t  œ› ­­ œ¦›œ . \r\r \t\f €\r­ ‹  \r­ ‚ ‚ \b\r \f ‚, \r­  \r\r­  \t\r\r­  \r  \n\r\r.  ®ˆ ‚\r  \r ­\f \r \r \t­\r . \r ‚\r \t\r\r­ (Pro tected designation of origin— PDO) \t\r  \r \n\t\f, \r\t‚\r   \r \f­ \r\t\r‚  \t \r\r ‚  \r,    \r‚\r \r\f  \r\r\r \r­ \r­ , \r \r\r \r \r(\r\r) \r  \f, \t‚ ‚\r \r, \r\t‚ ­ \r\r­ \t, \t\r‚\r  ‹ \r. \t\r, «Parma Ham» (…­ \r)— ­ PDO, \r  \f \r­  \r\r \t\n \t \r‚ \r\f  \b­­   \t\r\r­— . …, †\r­. ‘­ \r ‚\r (Protected geographical indication— PGI)  ‚\r­  \t\r‚ \t\n\r\r  \t,  \t‚­, \f  \r \r‚ \t\n \t\r­, \r \r\r \t\r\r­ \t \b­ ­ ‚ \r. \t\r,  ­ \r, \r\r  ó\r — \f­\f \r , \t\r‚\r\f ­  \f  -‚\t \n\r\r. … \t\r  PGI ›ªª§ . ˆ\r ­\f \t ‚\r\r\f\r PDO, PGI,  \r \r\n\r\r (TSG) (traditional specialities guaranteed) ®ˆ,  \t\r   \t\r\r \b\r: †\r­— ­\f \r\f: Š (ƒ),  (­), ˆ­\r S. Angelo (ˆ\r\n\r\r­), …€ (…); \n\r­— ­\f \r\f:  ­ \r \f \f \r €\r­  \t  \r‚\t \r \t O, C \r.. \t\r \r\f \r‚\t \r ‹  ‚\r\f \r\r\r \r\r\r\r \r \b ‚\r­. ‘\r \t\r­ ­‚\f \t\n\r \n\r\r \r­,   \r‚\r €\r­ \r‚\t  \r \r\r\r \r\r\r\r \t \n [›¡,›¢]. ˆ\t \r\r\r \t ­ \t\r \r‚\t \f  \r\r \r\r­— \t\n\r\r   \r\f \r, \t‹ \r‚\t €\r—   \f \r\r ­ \t‚\r­ \r\f \r\r\f \r\r . ˆ\f \r\r­ ‚\f,  \r‚ \t\f— \r\r \t­\r \r\r \r\t‚ \r\r , \n\r\r\r \r‚\t— ‹ \r \r­ \r\r­ \b [›£]. ˆ\r\f \r‚\t\f  \f \r\t‚\f  \r‚\t\f \r\r\f  ­: \r\t‚\r \r  «€ \r» \t\r \t\t\r\r \r -\r‚ \r\r  \t\r\b ,  , ‚ \r\r \f\r \t\t\r; \t\r \t\r\r €\r \f \r‚ \t \r‚, ­­\b\r­ \r­\f ­\r ( ‚\f­ «­­ »). \n\r\r\r \r‚\t— \r \r \r ‚\r-\r\r \n\r, ­  ‚\f­ \r  ­ \t\n, \r  ‹\r ­\r\r \r\f \b [›£]. •­ \r\r \t\r\b\f \t \r  \n\r\r\r \r‚\t  \t\r \r‚,  \n\r\r\r \r‚\t  \r‚ \t\r \r\r\r (\r ) \n\r\r \r \b. \t\r, \t\r ‚ N \r\r \n\t­, \t \r \r ‘ \r\f \r \r \r\r \t­ \f œ].•­ ‚\r­ \r‚\t  \t\r­ \r \t‚ \r\r ¸, \t­\b   \r (\f \f­\f ­ —à (\t\r)    [œ,ž,›¤]: ›¦¦¦,Ã,  \r\r\r ‹; — ­ €\r ­\f \r‚\t \r \r ¥; — ­ €\r ­\f \r‚\t \r ; \t\r. †‚ \f \r, \r ‚\n €\r \r‚ \t (R ) €,   ( ‚\n \r € ­\f \r‚\t),  \r\n\r­ \r‚\t  ¸ \r \r\n ‚\r, \r,, \t\r R €,  — \t \r. ‘\b\t\r­\f \f \f ‚ \n\f \t\r \r‚\t \r‚ \t\r\f ƒ. ›. €š\f ‘. …¨  \r¤  œ Ÿœ ¦Ÿ [‘°] ‹Ÿœ ¦Ÿ  ,² Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) œœ›  Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) œ¤Ÿ œ šŸ Atmospheric air (AIR) Ÿ¡ \r Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) œœ›  ¤³¤ Diablo Troilite (CDT) …  \r Ÿ ƒ\t \r ‚ \n\r\r\r \r\f \r‚\t \r  \r \t\r\r \t\r  \f \t\r. ‘\r­  \r   \r ‚\r ­\f \r‚\t O.  ­ \r\t\r­, ‚  € \t\r\r  \r \r‚\t,  \f\b­ \r\r, \t\r \r \n\r\r ­ \t\r\t\f \t\n \b\r­ \f ­\f\r \r‚\t\r [›ª]. \n\r\r\r \r\f \r‚\t   ­‚ \t\r\b \r\t \r‚ \r , ‚\r\b­ \t  \n\r\r \r­ \r‚\t C (\f­ ˆ , \rˆ- \r\t\f \r‚), \t\r ‹  \r\r \r ¥ \b­ \r \r‚\t ˆ \t \r \r\r\r\r [œ,œ¦],  \t‚­ \t\r   \t, ­ \r   \n\r  \r\r \r \t\r\b \r‚ -\r (, , \r, \t€\r\n, \f \f, ) \r\r ˆ -\r (‚,  \r\r  ­\r, \t­ ‚  \t   ‚ ). \n\r\r\r \r‚\t ‚  \r‚­ \f \r\r\r\n\r\b\r \r\r‚, \t\n\r \r\r\r\n\r\r \r \r\r\n\r\r \t. • \r\r \r \r ‚ \r\r \n\t­ \r \t\r\r ‚\r\f, ­\r \t\r, ‚\r\r ¸ \r\f \r‚ [œ]. ˆ€\r­ \r\f \r‚\t ‹, \f ­  \r\r\r \r, \r  \f€­ \r\r­, ‚\r\r  \r  ,  \f \r‚ \r  ­‚\f \r  \r\r \t\r\r [ž]. ƒ, €\r H  ‚\r\r  \f\f   ­, ­\r­   \r\r   \r. †‚\t\f  ‚\r\r   \r\r \b \t\f \r\r . ‘\r \r‚  \r‚\r­ \r‚\t  \t  \t\r\r­— -\t\r\r . ‘  ‚  \r\n\r \f ‚\r \f \r‚\t \r\r\r ‹ \r\r € \r \r, ‚, \t­ \t \r, \r, \r \t\r\r \t.   ‚   \r •  € €  \r‚  \t\r\f \r\f \r‚\t , ‚ \r\f ­­­ \r \r‚ \t\n\r \f \r ­ \r\r\n\r\r \r \t\r\r­ \r\r\r\r  \t  ,  ­‚ ,  \r­ \r \r\r \b\r \r\f, \f \r \t   , \t\n\r \r \t\n\r\r\f ­ \r \r‚\t\f \f, \t­\f \r\r\r\r \r­\r \r\r­\r \b \f. ‘  \r‚\t­ \r\r\n\r­ \t \r \t\r\r­ \t  ­,   ‚­ \f \r\f  \t­  ‚\r \t\r\r­,  \r \r \r‚\r \r  \f\b\r­  ‚\f . ’ , €\r\f \r\r­ ­ \r\f \r\r \r ­ ,  €\r \r \r\r \r\r‚\r\r\r , ‚\f\b\r \r­\r  \r‚\t\f   \r\f, \b   \r\t\r­ [¡]. ˆ\f \r\r­ \t \r\r\n\r\r ­ \f­ \r\t‚\r \r‚\t \r \r \r\r ‹ \n \r\t‚   \f \t: \r‚ €\r­ \r‚\t ‘ \r H \t\r ­­ ­ \t\r­ \r \t\r \r­, ­‚ \r\f\r \r\r \r\r \r­\r [›¦]; \r‚ €\r­ \r‚\t C \t\r ­­  ­ \t\r­ \t \n\r, \r  ‚ \r\r \n\f [¡]. \f \r \r ‚\r­ \r\r  \f\t. ƒ \n\r­ \r‚\t\f  \r  \f\t, \f  \t\r‚\r \r \r­\r  \r \r\f \t\r \n\r\r\r\r \r‚\t   \b, \t\r­\b \r\r ‚\r\f €\r \r‚\t ‚\r\f  ­ \r. …\r­­ \r\r\r\f \r‚ \r \r \r \t\r \r\r\n\r \t ¸ Cª¤,£œ \r\t ¸ N— ª£,¡ž % ‚\n ­  ‚\r\r\r  \r\t \r , \r\t‚\f \t\r \r\r. †\r­ ‚\r,  \r‚  €\r­ \r\f \r‚\t ­— \t\t\r \f \r\r\r \r ­ \t\r \t \r\r \r\f \r\n\r ­ \t \r\t \t\r\r­. Ž‚ \r‚\r­ \r‚\t  \r‚ ­ \r\n\r\n\r\r ­\r\f \r‚ –\t\r\r, \r\r \rˆ\r\f ”,  ­\r\f, \t\r­\b \r‚ ®\t\f \t \n\f ­ \r [œ¡]. Ž \f \r\r \f † \r\r \r\r\r\r\r \f \r‚\r \r\f \r‚\t C, N \rS  \t\n\r\f   \r \t\r\r­ \r\t  ( \r\n\r \r\r \r) ­ ­ \t   [›¦]. •­ \r\r\r\n\r\r \r \t\r\r­ \r \r ‚\n\f \r  (n œ), \r  (n ž), \n‚ (n œ), \n (n ¢), \r ­ (n ›), \r\t (n ¢), ‚\r (n ›¦) ­\r\f,  ‚\n\f \r‚ ˆ” ( \t\r\r, n = ›› \r›œ),   \r‚\r ‚\n\f   \r‚ \r  ­ \r\r ­   \r ­\r \f \r\n\r (n ›¤) \r\r (n ›¢)  .  ,  \t ­ ­\r (­ \r\n\r \r) ‚\r \r  \r ­\r\f  \r\r \r‚  \r‚\t C \rN.  € ‚\r\r ¸  \t  \r\r ­\r  \f ¥­  \t\r\t\f\r \t\t \n\r­\r \r \r\t \r‚ C \n\r  \t  . ˆ\r \r ¸ \r\n\r\f \r\r \r œ¡,¢ à \r\r \t \r \r œ›,£ à ‚\n ­\r\f ­ \t\r\r  \r\r \n\r ˆž \r . \t\r\t ‹  \r\n \f \r ¸ C ­ \r \r ›œ,ž à \r‚\r \r ›¦,¦ à ­\r\f   \t\r \r\r \r \t‚\r C , \r  ‚ \r\r () \t\r\r \t\r\b\f \f. ‰\r ‚\f \r\r\r\n\r ¸ C  \t , \f \t‚­ \r\r \r ­\r  \t  . ‰, ­,    ­  ®\t\f, ­ †\r \r\r \r,  \t \t\r\b\f \r\f \f \b\r\r­ \r\r\t‚\r ˆ ‚­  \f— ‚\f  ­­­ \b\t\r­\f. ‘\t\r\f ‚\r\r\f \r‚\r­ ¸ \r­ \t \r ­ \t   \t ‹ \t\t\r. ‘   \r\r    ,  \n \r ®\t \b \r\f \f\b\r\r­ ­ ’ˆ, \n\r \f \r \t‚ ‚\r \r ‚\f. \t\r , \r ¸ C \f€\n ’ˆ \f\r \r\t‚  \r œ¡ à  \r ›ž à \t\r \r\r\r ­\r \f, \t œž   \r\r,   ­  ­  \r\f \f  \r \r ¸ C \r\r \r œ¤ † \r,  €\r ¸ C \r¸ ­ ‚\n \r \r\n\r ­\r\f \b \r  ‹\r \t‚  \t  ­\r\f,  \r ,  \r\r\n\r­ \t\r\r­ ­\r\f   \r‚\t \r‚   €  \r € [›¦].   \r\r\r \r\r\f \r‚ \r‚\t  C, N \rS \t‚\r \r\n\r  \r ­\r \r\n\r \r\r  . ƒ, \r\n\r­ \r­ ­ \r \r  \r\n\f ‚\r­ \r‚\t  \r, \r\f \r ¸ C \t  \r \r ­\r \r œ¡,¢ \r\r œ£,¦ à , \t­,  \r\n\r \r  \r\t‚  \n\r\f  \r\r  \r \r \f \f\b\r\r­, ­ \r\r­   ­\f , \r\b\r  \r\n\f \r C \t \r \n\r. ƒ\r\n\r­ ­\r \r  \f\r  N,  \r­, ­ \f ‚\r­ ‹  \t‚­ \r\r ¤,§ à \r£,£ à  . ‚\r\r­ \r‚\t   \r \r\r\n\r ­\r , \r \f ‚\r\r­\r \t\r\r \r   ( \r\r \n), \t­ ‚ \r \r\r \r\r [›¦,›œ]. \f \f\r \r\t‚,  ‹ ‚  ­\r \b\r N \r \r-\t ‚  \r \f \r , \r\f \t,   \f\t\r \f\b\r\f \r\n\r \r \r\f. ƒ ‚­ \r \r\f ¥­\r — \t\r,  \f \r \f  \r\r \r . ’ , \f  € \r\r \r\r\f ¸ S ‚\n \r ¤,ª à \t \r \r\n\r ¤,œ à \r  ­\r . …\r\r\f ‹ \r\r­   ­\f \r ­ ‚\r\f\r \r \f\r \r‚\r­\r €\r­ ¸ S \r  \t \t\r \r\r \r [œ¢]. ‚, ‹ ‚  \r\t‚\r \r   , \f \r  \f \r \t \r ‚\f\r \r\r\r, \r\t‚ \f\r ­ \b\r­  \r\r  \r  \r\r . †‚\r \r­\r­ ‚\f \r‚\r   \r \r\f \r‚\t C, N \rS \r \r\r\n\r \r ­\r\f (›œ¤ \r \r, ››¢ \r\n\r\f ‚\n) \t‚,   \f ­\f €\r­ ¸ C ‚\n \f ­\r\f ­­\r   \f\r \r \r \r\f ‚\f \t\r\f \r €  œ à \t\r ­ \t \r,  ­  ‚\r ¸ C \r ­\r \f   \r‚\r\f \r‚\r  \r‚\r.  \r\n\r ­\r ‚\r ¸ N \f ‚\f  \r\r\f (­ \r‚\r ¤ Ã) \r  ,  ­  \r­ ­\r \f  \r‚\r ,  \r ‚\r  \r‚\r \t‚ ¸ N. ˆ\r \r‚\t \f (¸ S) \r  ‚ \r \r \r \r ­\r\f [›œ]. ƒ\r ‚, \r‚\t  ­\r\f   \r  ‚\f ‚\r, \f, ­,  \r‚\r­  \r­ \r\f \r\t­­  \r­ \r  . ˆ, ‚\f \r‚\r­  \r \r\f \t\r \t\r\r \t\r\r  ­\r\f \r\r \t \r \t\r \r­ \r\t‚\r \r‚\t \r‚. ˆ \n \r‚\r­  \r­  \r\f \r‚\t ­ Ä ’ \t € \r\r ¢ªª ‚\n \r\r\f ‚ \r \t\r\r­ \r‚ ›¡ : žž¢ ‚\n \r‚ Ä ’\r, œ£¡— \r‚ Ä \rˆ \r (’, ˆ”, \r\r, ¬\r\r), ª— \r‚ \t \r  (\r\r, \r\r, •\r\r, \n\r\r,  \r\r, \r­\r\r, …€\r, \r\r, †\t\r\r). †  €\r \r\f \r‚\t N  ‚\r   \r \r\f. \r‚ \t‚  ‚\r \t\r \r\r ­  \r: Ä ’\r, \r\r \r®\t\f. ƒ \r\r \f\r\r \r‚\r \t ‚\r ‚\f ¸ ˆ ­ ˆ” \r\r\r: \r ›¡,¤§ \r\r ›¡,§› à , \r\r \r• \r\r: \r œ¢,¢¤ à \r\r œ¢,œ¡ à ,  ¥­­­, ­, \r \r \r‚  [œ£]. …\r \f \f \t \r‚\t   ‚\r\r  \r\f ¥ (\r \r \r ­ €\r),   \r\r­ \r\r \t\n ‚\r\f ­ \r\f  \t\r \r \r\r \t‚ ‚\r\f \t. ˆ\r ‚\n \r,   ›œ ­­ \r‚ €\r \t \r  \t \r‚\t  ˆ\rN \t ‹ ‚\r. ƒ, €\r ¸ \r ­­ \r \t : \r\r\r­— \r žœ,¢ Ã, †\t\r­— \r œ£,ž Ã, \n\r­— \r œª,¡ Ã, \n\r­— \r œ¡,§ Ã, †\r­— \r ž›,¢ Ã, †\r­— \r œ§,¢ ˆ  ­ ­­: \r œ£,§ Ã, \r œœ,ž Ã, \r œ¡,¦  œ›,› Ã, \r œ¢,§ Ã, \r œœ,¤ à  , ¸ N  ­ ­­: £,ž Ã; £,£ Ã; ª,› Ã; ¢,¤¢ à  [£].  \f\r -ˆ\r\r\r \f \r\r \r \r\t\r­ \r†\r  \b \r‹\t\r \r\r\r ˆ\r\r  \r­  \t \r‚ \r­ \r\f \r‚\t  \r‚ ­\r, \r‚\r­  \r ‚\r­‚\r \t\f \r\r­ \r‚ \t   \r\r \r\t \r   Œ ­. ˆ\r \r\f \r‚\t  \r  \r œ¤,›£  \r œ¤,§£ Ã,   \r\t‚ ­ \r\f ‚\f \r ˆ -\r\t [œ¤]. …\f \f \t‚\r,  \r \r\f \r‚\t  \f€ \r  \t   ‚ œ¨ž  \r‚ \r ‚\f   Œ ­: ’\r , \r\r , •\r\r\r , Œ\r , ’\r\r\r\r , “\r \r , Œ\r\r , \r\r ­  \r œ¡,œ§ à  \r œ¢,§¡ Ã. ‰ \r ,   ‚\n\f \f€ \r  \r  \f,   ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ  \t\f €  \r œ¡,¦ Ã. ˆ\r \r\f \r‚\t ‚ \r\f ‚\n \b  \r­ \r\r  ¢,§¢ à  ¤,§¡ Ã,  \t ‚\r , \r\b\r \t\r \b   \r\f. ‘\b\r ‚ \r\r \t‚\r \r,  \r\f ‚\n\f ­, \t\f   \r \r,  \r  \t\r‚  \r­­  \f [œ¤]. ‚ \r\r\r\n\r­ \f \t\r \r­ ­ \f­ \f \t. ƒ, \f ‚\r\r\r \rˆ” \r‚\r\r €\r­ \r\f \r‚\t ¸ ˆ \r‚ ¸ N ­ ­\b  \r,  \t «\r‚\n\r\r», \r‚  \n\r €\r  (\r, \r­, \r­, ‚\r\r­, ’, ’\r , †‚\r, \r­, ˆ”, –\t\r­,  ‚\r­, ƒ\n\r­, ”\n\r­, Ä­ \r, …\r­, \n\r­, \r\r\r­ \r.) [œ§]. †\r \r\f\r,  €\r  \r\f \r‚\t ¸ ˆ  \r \r‚­­ \r\t‚  \r ›› à ( \r\r \r\r  ‚ \r\r \t\r\r\r \r)  \r  œ¢ à ( \r\r \r­\r ˆ -\r‚: \t€\r\n, ­, \f  \t­). Š\f \t \f ‚\r­  ‹\r\r  \r\r ‚ \r­\r ‚\r,   \r\r \r­\r \r \t\t.  ,  ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ \r\r  \r œ¢,¡ à  \r ››,› à ­ \r\f ‚\n ­ \r  ,  ‚ \r ¸ ˆ ­   \r ›£,œ Ã. \r  \r‚\r ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ \f ‚\n \r‚ \r\r\r\r (\r­ \r”\r­), \f \f\r— \r‚ ‚\r\r\r. • \f\r ‚\r \r­ ‚\r ¸ ˆ \r \f \f  \r\r,  \r ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ ­  \r \r‚  … \rˆ\r \r\r \r ›¡,¦ à (n ¡) \r\r ›ª,£ à (n ¡) . ˆ\r \r \r‚\t    \t\r\r ‚\n  \r \r‚ ‚\f McDonald¼s ˆ\r­  \r \r œœ,¤ ’\f \r \r‚ –\t\r\r \r\r  \f\r ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ,  \r   \r‚   ‚­  ‹ \f \r­\r ˆ -\r\t,  –\t\r­ \r\t\r ­\r \r‚ \r\r,  \t\f \r­ ˆ -\r‚. ˆ \f \r‚\r\r €\r\r,  \t\r, \r\r  \f\r ‚\r­ ¸ ˆ,  \f  \f\r €\r ,   € \t\r \r \t\f \r. Œ\r­ ¸ N \r\f ‚\n  \r  \r‚­  ¡,œ  ª,œ Ã, \t\r  \r\r Ã. ‘‚\n\f  \r‚ –\t\r\r \r\r \r€ \r \r‚\t N, ‚\n\f \r‚ ’\r­— . ’  \t\r­ ¸ ˆ ‚\n\f \r‚  \r\r \t‚\r ‚\r \r ‚ \r ¸ N, \r‚­€­ \r\t‚  ¡,œ à  §,¢ Ã. ˆ\r\r\r ‚\r\f ‚\r\r \r\r ¸ N   \r, \t\f ‚\r\f  \r\t \t\r\f \t \r €\r  . †\r,  \r‚ \f ƒ‘ \t \r\t ­\r\f, \r\r,  €\r , ­\b\r  \r\r \t\r \t\r‚   ­  \r \r\t‚ ­ \r  \f\b\r\r­, ‚ \r\r €\r , \t\f \t­ ‚\r­ \r\t  ­\r\f: ”\n\r­, †‚\r, …\r­, –\t\r­,  ‚\r­ \r\r\f.   ­\b ­ \n ­  \r \t ­­ €\r€\f \r\r­ \t \r\t ‚\r  \r‚ \r\f \r‚\t ­ \t\r­ \r \t\r\r­ ­ \r­\f \t. \r‚ \t\f \r \r \r,  \r‚\t\f  \t  \r \t\r\r­ \t­­ \r \r\r\r \r\r\r\r \r­\r (€\r \r­ \r,   ­),  ‚ ,  ‚\f\r \r‚\r­\r \r . \r‚ €\r­ \r\f \r‚\t C, N \rS  \t\n\r  \r \r‚ \r  \r\r\n\r\r ­. Introduction ™e task of revealing falsication of animal-derived products linked with a change (distortion) of the informa tion about product geographical origin (country, region) is rather complicated but quite topical. ™e problem of a cer tain product authentication or revelation of the fact of its falsication has been acquiring an increasing importance not only for consumers but also for responsible producers and distributors [›,œ,ž,¡,¢,£]. An interest of consumers in a solution to the problem of product authenticity regarding the foods they buy is espe cially increased in case of products from the premium seg ment, which includes organic foods, products correspond ing to the principles of fair trade as well as products with protected designation of origin (PDO). Local and traditional products are perceived as healthier and tastier, and nd a growing demand among consumers [›]. Identication of the regional origin of animal raw ma terials is quite a complicated task and requires a search for reliable identication criteria with consideration for the geoclimatic and anthropogenic factors. ™e markers are chemical elements and their isotopes, which presence in the animal body and animal products [¤]: is conditioned by the chemical composition of water, environment and feedstu³; depends on the animal physiology and element redis Two protected geographical terms are distinguished in the EU. Protected designation of origin (PDO) envisions an ab solute adherence to a recipe, the use of the strictly specied raw materials and product manufacture exclusively in the designated place of the region, where its production and qualitative characteristics are in²uenced by the geographic environment, climatic peculiarities and (or) human fac tors; it is intended to mean the name of a region used for the name of a product produced only in this region. For example, Prosciutto di Parma (Parma Ham) is PDO and according to the established requirements the entire tech nological process of ham production is to be carried out in the place of its origin (Parma, Italy). Protected geographical indication (PGI) is largely based on the acknowledged reputation of this product and at least one of the processes of production, processing or preparation of a product is to be carried out in the speci ed region. For example, Bayonne Ham or Jambon de Bay onne is an air-dried pork ham, which is produced in the area near Bayonne, France. ™e product was given the PGI status in ›ªª§. Among meat products with the registered PDO, PGI and TSG (traditional speciality guaranteed) in the EU, the following can be listed as examples: Italy— meat specialities: Lardo di Colonnata (Tus cany), Mortadella (Bologna), Salame Sant Angelo (Sicily), Prosciutto (Parma); France— meat specialities: Bayonne Ham, sausage ›¦¦¦,Ã, Where, E— is a chemical element; — is the molar ratio of the heavy to light isotopes in the studied object; — is the molar ratio of the heavy to light isotopes in the standard; permille. It can be seen from the equation that if the ratio of iso topes (R ) in a sample is lower than in the standard (that is a sample contains less heavy isotopes) than the variation of the isotopic composition ¸ has a negative value; and, on the contrary, when R is higher than in a standard, the varia tion is positive. ™e generally accepted international standard samples for isotopic analysis are given in Table ›. Table ‘. International standards of the isotopic composition of several chemical elements [‘°] Chemical element Standard of standard,² Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) (Ocean Water) Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) (Belemnite fossils) Atmospheric air (AIR) (Atmospheric air) Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) (Ocean Water) Canyon Diablo Troilite (CDT) (Mineral troilite from meteorite) Fractionation of stable isotopes Fractionation of stable isotopes of oxygen and hy drogen takes place upon water circulation in nature. ™e ocean water has the maximum value of the heavy isotopes  \r O. During evaporation, it is saturated with the light isotopes due to their higher mobility, while the opposite process of water enrichment in the heavy isotopes is ob served upon partial condensation [›ª]. Fractionation of the carbon stable isotopes is mainly as sociated with the type of plant photosynthesis that di³ers in the level of fractionation of C and C isotopes (ˆ and CAM photosynthesis types are distinguished). With that, carbon of biological objects is enriched in the light isotope, ˆ, compared to abiotic ones [œ,œ¦], which allows en subregions, which suggest the potential for using stable isotope analysis of cattle tail hair samples in order to create beef traceability database by regions [œ›]. ™e e³ectiveness of ¸ C and ¸ N isotope analysis in lipid and residual fractions of lamb protein was veried [œœ]. ™e study was carried out on ›œ¦ samples of lamb produced in di³erent regions of di³erent countries: the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Greece, Island and Italy. To evaluate the region of meat origin, canonical discrimi nant analysis was used. ™e di³erentiation was carried out by stable isotope ratios. Initially, ¤ª.œ % of lamb samples were classied correctly, while cross-validation of the dis criminant model reduced the number of samples that were correctly identied by geographical origin to £¤ ™e South African researchers used the potential of stable isotopes C and N as a marker for authen tication of lamb from Karoo sheep raised in the Karoo re gion of South Africa [œž]. Consumers highly value Karoo lamb for its quality and unique organoleptic characteristics (grassy aroma and taste), which are thought to be condi tioned by the fact that sheep are raised in the free-range systems and eat aromatic Karoo plants. Seven farms, which es in the ¸ S ratio in English soils upon using fertilizers [œ¢]. ™is result can possibly re²ect the use of seaweed with higher S content compared to terrestrial sources, which are applied for feed enrichment or as fertilizer in the or ganic farm systems. ™e study of the e³ect of seasonal changes on the com position of stable isotopes C, N and S in organic and con ventional Irish beef (›œ¤ organic and ››¢ conventional samples) demonstrated that the time series of the ¸ C ratio in the samples of conventional beef were signicantly non- random and had a clear seasonal positive shiš of more than à in the period from December to June, while the ¸ value in organic beef was less changeable and signicantly lower. In conventional beef, the ¸ N was surprisingly invari ant (remaining close to ¤ Ã) during the whole year; organic beef was more variable and was distinguished by lower ¸ value. ™e sulfur isotope composition (¸ S) demonstrated complex seasonal dynamics in both beef types [›œ]. ™us, there can be seasonal patterns in the beef isotopic composition, which, possibly, re²ect changes in the ways of animal feeding and are conditioned by the rate of their tis sue turnover. ™erefore, it is necessary to take into account seasonal changes upon authentication of beef and other ani mal-derived products with the use of isotopic analysis. To study the peculiarities of stable isotope composition in meat, a large-scale research was done in South Korea with investigation of ¢ªª pork samples of di³erent origin from ›¡ countries: žž¢ samples from South Korea, œ£¡ from South and North America (Canada, USA, Mexico, Chile), ™e ¸ N values in the studied samples of Big Mac pat ties were in a range from ¡.œ à to ª.œ à (the median value of £.£ Ã). ™e content of N isotopes was the highest in the Japanese patty samples and the lowest in the Chinese samples. ™e samples from Australia showed a signicant variability of the ¸ N values (ina range from ¡.œ à to Ã), which was similar to the results of ¸ ˆ measure ment. No statistically signicant di³erences were found in the ¸ N value in the Big Mac patties bought in di³erent countries and grouped by geographical latitude. Taking into consideration the analysis of the FAO data on beef import, the researchers established that locally pro duced beef was used for production of Big Mac patties in most countries included in this study except six countries presented in the order of an increase in beef import: Swe \nŽ­\bƒŒˆ†’ ˆ–ˆŽ† 1. Montowska, M., Pospiech, E. (2012). Is uthentication of egional and raditional Food Made of Meat Possible? critical reviews in Food Science and nutrition , 52(6), 475–487 [Элек тронный ресурс: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010. 501408. Дата обращения 20.06.2017] .Г., Колеснов, .Ю. (2011). ценка качества безопасности пищевой продукции методом изотопной масс аналитика, 1(1), 44–48. Gandemer, G. (2012). Quality of dry cured ham: Methods for authentication of geographical origin, rearing system and tech nology. International Symposium on the Mediterranean Pig. M, 535–542. Kelly, J.F. (2000). 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(1981). Природа биологического Гракцио нирования изотопов. М, аука.— 247 с. 15. Чернуха, .М., Федулова, ., Котенкова, Е. .Б. (2016). зучение влияния воды с изотопным (D/H) составом на репродуктивную Гункцию, Гор мирование и развитие потомства крыс. вопросы питания, 16. ысенко, . Б., Скульский, ., Шатило, . Б., Кошля кова, ысенко, М. ., Соботович, Э. . (2014). Пробле мы и перспективы использования внутримолекулярных изотопных соотношений основных биогенных элементов как нового ресурса диагностики патологий разной этиоло Живые и биокосные системы, 8. [Электронный ресурс: http://www.jbks.ru/archive/issue‑8/article‑8, Дата обраще ния 28.07.2017] 17. Галимов, Э.М., Севастьянов, .С., Кульбачевская, Е. ., Голявин, . (2004). дентиГикация геограГического ме ста происхождения наркотических веществ на основе изо топного анализа углерода и азота. , 1(1), 31–36. 18. Ghidini, S., Ianieri, , Zanardi, E., onter, M., Boschetti, Iacumin, P., Bracchi, P.G. (2006). 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Identi�cation of the geographical origin of products by isotope content. Prod ucts and Markets, 2(18), 24–35. (In retyakov, .V., bramenkova, O.I., Podkolzin, I.V., Solovyev, .I. (2012). Identi�cation of geographic origin of meat and caviar using chemical �ngerprinting techniques. Veterinary Science to day Znamenskaya, V.S. (2016). Legal protection of appellations of origin of goods in ussia and abroad. uthor’s abstract of the dissertation for the scienti�c degree of andidat of echnical Sci ence. Moscow, PG .S., Pezzato, ., Ducatti, ., Sartori, J. L., Silva, E. . (2006). raceability of bovine meat and bone meal in poultry by stable isotope analysis. Brazilian Journal of Poltry 10. Schmidt, O., Quilter, J.M., Bahar, B., Moloney, .P., Scrim geour, .M., Begley, I.S., Monahan, F.J. (2005). Inferring the origin and dietary history of beef from and S stable isotope ratio Food chemistry , 91(3), 545–549. 11. Denadai, J. ., Ducatti, ., Sartori, J. ., Pezzato, ., ., Gottmann, ., Mituo, M. .O. (2009). raceability of bovine meat and bone meal in eggs from laying hens fed with alternative ingredients. Pesquisa agropecuária Brasileira, 44(1), 1–7. 12. Bahar, B., Schmidt, O., Moloney, .P., Scrimgeour, .M., Beg ley, I.S., Monahan, F.J. (2008). Seasonal variation in the and S stable isotope composition of retail organic and conventional Food chemistry, 106(3), 1299–1305. 13. ecommended methods of analysis and sampling. tan 234–1999. With amendments adopted by the 30th Ses sion of the odex limentarius Published online, 2007. authenticity [Electronic resource: http://www.fao.org/ �leadmin /user_upload/ agns/pdf/ ccess date 28.07.2017] 14. Galimov, E.M. (1981). ature of biological isotope fraction ation. Мoscow: auka.— 247 р. (in 15. chernuha, I.M., Fedulova, L.V., Kotenkova, E. ., Lisit a .B. (2016). he study of the in�uence of water with modi �ed isotope (D/H) composition on the reproductive function, for mation and development of the offspring rats. Voprosy pitaniya ussian) 16. Lysenko, O.B., Skulskiy, ., Shatilo, V. B., Koshliakova, Lysenko, M.O., Sobotovich, E. V. (2014). Problems and prospects of the main biogenic elements intramolecular isotope correlations using as a new resource of different aetiology pathologies diag nostics. Live and biocose systems, 8. [Electronic resource: http:// www.jbks.ru/archive/issue‑8/article‑8 ccess date 28.07.2017] ussian) 17. Galimov, E.M., Sevastyanov, V.S., Kulbachevskaya, E.V., Goly avin, . (2004). he identication of the geographical origin of drugs based on the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios ktrometria , 1(1), 31–36. (in 18. Ghidini, S., Ianieri, , Zanardi, E., onter, M., Boschetti, Iacumin, P., Bracchi, P.G. (2006). Stable isotopes determination in food authentication: a review. Universita di Parma: annali Della Facolta Di Medicina Veterinaria, XXVI, 193–204. eneiro, F. (2001). Isotope methods for the control of food and beverages. Proceedings of an advisory Group meeting held in Vienna «new approaches for stable isotope ratio measure alibova, .G., Kolesnov, .Yu. (2010). Identifying the origin of raw materials by the method of mass spectrometry. Myasnye 21. Liu, X., Guo, B., Wei, Y., Shi, J., Sun, S. (2013). Stable isotope analysis of cattle tail hair. potential tool for verifying the geo Food chemistry, 140(1–2), 135–140. Piasentier, E., Valusso, amin, F., Versini, G. (2003). Sta ble isotope ratio analysis for authentication of lamb meat. 64(3), 239–247. Erasmus, S.W., Muller, M., van der ijst, M., Hoffman, L. (2016). Stable isotope ratio analysis: potential analytical tool for the authentication of South frican lamb meat. Food chemis try, 192, 997–1005. 24. .Z. (2010). uthentication of meat and meat prod , 86(3),577–587. Knights, J. S., Zhao, F. J., Spiro, B., McGrath, S. P. (2000). term effects of land use and fertilizer treatments on sulfur cycling. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29(6), 1867–1874. Kim, K.S., Kim, J.S., Hwang, I.M., Jeong, I.S., Khan, S.I., Jeon, D.B., Song, Y.H., Kim, K.S., (2013). pplication of stable isotope ratio analysis for origin authentication of pork. Ko rean Journal for Food Science of animal resources , 33(1), 39–44. 27. Zhamsaranova, S.D., Bazhenova, B. himitdorzhieva, G.D., Zabalueva, Yu.Yu. (2017). ontent of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in muscle tissue of the cattle from different areas of Vsyo o myase , 5, 34–37. (in Martinelli, L. ardoto, G.B., hesson, L. inaldi, F.D., Om etto, J.P.H.B., .E., Ehleringer, J. . (2011). Worldwide sta ble carbon and nitrogen isotopes of Big Mac® patties: n example of a truly «glocal» food. Food chemistry, 127(4), 1712–1718. \bŽ  \b€‹ AUTHOR INFORMATION „¨ œƒ\r\f A¬liation  š ›  — \r \r\r , Ž\f , \f \f \n \t\r\b\f \r \r. ..   109316, . , . \r\r, 26. .: +7–495–676–93–17 E-mail: [email protected] Nataliya A. Gorbunova — kandidat of technical sciences, Scienti…c

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